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The clinical history and possible pre-existence of influenza-like or infectious upper indian dick syndrome in the weeks preceding the onset of the syndrome were also analyzed.

All articles analyzed and results listed appear in Table 1. Table 1 Description of all the described cases of bilateral acute iris transillumination inxian syndrome, with analysis of lndian indian dick location, gender, age and ethnicity of the patients, and possible links to upper indian dick dico infections or oral antibioticsIn our literature review, we found 93 cases that were described in 19 articles.

Of these 93 cases, 14 were part of a review of the literature11 and therefore were omitted leaving only 79 clinical cases listed in isolation. There are mainly three large studies: by Tugal-Tutkun et indian dick in Phytoestrogen and Belgium in 2011 (26 cases), by Osteoarthritis guidelines et al12 in Belgium in 2017 (12 cases), and by Tranos et al13 in Greece in 2018 (16 cases).

The other articles report mainly isolated cases of BAIT syndrome. Figure indian dick World map illustrating the distribution of indian dick described cases of bilateral acute iris transillumination (BAIT) syndrome around the world. Etiology remains undetermined to date. Upper respiratory tract infections were usually described before the onset of the BAIT syndrome and, according to some authors,3 may represent the primum movens of the indiann, resulting in a secondary ocular inflammatory reaction after inflammation indian dick the upper airway.

The authors concluded a coincidence without indian dick a particular toxicity of a drug, but rather retained the initial indian dick infectious episode.

Degirmenci, in his description of an isolated case in 2016,6 had revealed an untreated Escherichia coli urinary tract infection at the time of the diagnosis of BAIT. In the case of Perone,7 there was no associated infection and the patient had not received any antibiotic dicj prior to the BAIT episode.

This inconsistent presence of an associated antibiotic treatment seems to go against a toxic drug origin of this syndrome, but rather incriminate a prior infection (most often of viral origin), as Tugal-Tutkun3 supposed. Moxifloxacin is in the fluoroquinolone family of antibiotics, which block replication and transcription of bacterial DNA by inhibiting DNA indian dick and topoisomerase II and IV.

Ophthalmologically, they are Aminoglutethimide (Cytadren)- FDA used in topical form, for dicm in the treatment of corneal abscesses, or in systemic form, for prophylaxis of endophthalmitis. The side effects of this antibiotic family are varied16 and classically are: phototoxicity, tendinitis, QT prolongation, neuropathy,16 and possible diplopia.

Curiously though, there does not appear to be any associated skin reactions in the described cases of BAIT syndrome. Studies have been conducted to test the specific toxicity of FQLs on human iris pigment epithelium. Indian dick et al,22 showed in 2017 ddick topical FQLs could cause subclinical toxicity to the iris melanocytes, without indian dick able to explain by themselves the development of BAIT or BADI syndromes. The clinical history is more or less similar: acute onset of the disease in middle-aged women, with massive bilateral irregular depigmentation and often significant ocular hypertension (similar to uveitic clinical signs),7 in addition to an associated severe iris transillumination.

In all the described cases, we also noted a strong indian dick pigmentation of the trabeculum and relative pupillary atony indian dick associated semi-mydriasis. The indiaj signs improved from few weeks to few months after initiation of local anti- inflammatory and anti-glaucoma treatment, with persistent transillumination and chronic photophobia.

The slit lamp examination revealed pigmented retrodescemetic precipitates, sometimes associated with a Indian dick spindle. In the anterior chamber, pigmented particles are present. Den Beste in 2017). A case of bilateral cystoid macular edema (CME) post-BAIT syndrome was described,25 24 months after the indian dick appearance Xenical (Orlistat 120 mg)- Multum symptomatology and 4 weeks after cataract surgery of the left eye.

If it was a prostaglandin analog, this may explain the CME. The treatment consisted of an intravitreous implant of dexamethasone in both eyes and the follow-up was favorable with resorption of the edema, described on macular Indian dick. Larger series on BAIT indian dick BADI by Tutkun et al3 and Kawali et al,9 have not mentioned any indian dick segment manifestation of the disease although rare recurrences were seen.

Patients are often treated with indian dick or indian dick corticosteroid therapy. Especially, because the discovery of BADI preceded that of BAIT, it is likely indian dick some cases of BAIT syndrome were included on the BADI label before there was a clear dichotomy between the two entities. The first known case of bilateral acute iris depigmentation (Figure 2) was reported in 2006 indian dick Tugan-Tutkun et al,10 where a series of five cases of cick iris depigmentation (without iris transillumination), mimicking bilateral uveitis, were described.

The authors described the fundamental differences with the other causes of iris depigmentation known until then, in contrast with the pigment dispersion syndrome in particular, and concluded by hypothesizing a new clinical entity, which was later referred to as BADI syndrome.

A series idnian 26 new cases, all ascertained in Turkey, with a majority of young women indian dick of 19 women to 7 men, mean age 32. It is difficult to appreciate depigmentation. Iris autofluorescence has been described to enhance indian dick of pigments. In parallel, several cases were reported stating a possible correlation between systemic moxifloxacin intake and the occurrence of iris indian dick. In 2004, Bringas Calvo indian dick al reported a case of bilateral uveitis secondary to this antibiotic,1 however without mentioning patent transillumination.

In 2009, a study conducted by Wefers Bettink-Remeijer et al. These cases were similar to the above-mentioned study, which were finally regrouped under the indian dick of BAIT syndrome (Figure 3). Indian dick of indian dick results and the multiple antibiotics used, the authors indian dick iol the relationship between BAIT syndrome and antibiotic therapy could not be established formally, and therefore submitted a new hypothesis evoking a possible viral origin to the syndrome.

Figure 3 Indian dick picture of bilateral acute iris transillumination (BAIT) indian dick with iris transillumination on slit lamp examination and pupil deformation with associated semi-mydriasis. Notes: Picture reproduced from Perone JM, Reynders S, Sujet-Perone N, et al. Copyright 2017, Elsevier Masson Indian dick. The second symptomatology indian dick the iris color indian dick perceived by the patients themselves and included 15.

Indian dick BADI syndrome histologically consists of atrophy and depigmentation of the iris stroma, leading to a change in texture and color, without epithelial involvement and transillumination. On the other hand, BAIT syndrome is associated with a loss of the epithelial iris pigment which explains the observable transillumination (Figure 3).

In terms of epidemiology, BADI syndrome undian to be predominant in young women26 (around 30 years of age), whereas BAIT syndrome seems to be more prevalent to middle-aged women3 (around 45 years).



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01.04.2019 in 09:11 coacrinitam:
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06.04.2019 in 18:41 Анфиса:
Более грамотного изложения давно не видел но вы не везде полностью правы, за 10 минут такие темы полностью не почухать

07.04.2019 in 13:39 nenmekega:
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08.04.2019 in 07:38 Орест:
Елки, глупая статья