International journal of scientific engineering and applied science

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Further details and how you can manage cookie settings are set out in our terms of use. By using this website you agree to our use of cookies. What actually happens in Atrial Fibrillation. Your mobile, clinical quality ECG. Always know what to do. S47385Massimo Zoni-Berisso, Fabrizio Lercari, Tiziana Carazza, Stefano DomenicucciDepartment of Cardiology, ASL 3, Padre A Micone Hospital, Genoa, ItalyAbstract: In the last 20 years, atrial fibrillation (AF) has become one of the most important public health problems and a significant cause of increasing health care costs in western countries.

The prevalence of AF is increasing due to our greater ability to treat chronic cardiac and noncardiac diseases, and the improved ability to suspect and diagnose AF. The prevalence of AF varies with age and sex. AF is present in 0. In addition, it occurs more frequently in males, with a male to female ratio of 1. The incidence of AF ranges between 0. AF is frequently associated with cardiac disease and comorbidities.

The most common concomitant diseases johnson dance coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, and cardiomyopathy. The most common comorbidities are hypertension, diabetes, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal failure, stroke, and cognitive disturbance. Paroxysmal AF occurs in younger patients and with a reduced burden of both cardiac disease and comorbidities.

Generally, the history of AF is long, burdened by frequent recurrences, and associated with symptoms (in two thirds of patients). Patients with AF have a five-fold and two-fold higher risk of stroke and death, respectively.

Given that AF is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, this increasing number of individuals with AF will have major public health implications.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, epidemiology, risk factors, mortality, strokeIn the last two decades, atrial fibrillation (AF) has become one of the most important public health issues and an important cause of health care expenditure in western countries. Even if AF is not a life-threatening arrhythmia, it influences quality of life significantly as a result of its anatomic, hemodynamic, and hemocoagulative consequences.

In addition, AF is frequently associated with disturbing symptoms and very important socioeconomic problems, such as permanent disability, bloating belly disturbance, hospitalization, and absence from work. A systematic review of the html aside reported on the epidemiology of AF in Europe was performed using the electronic MEDLINE and International journal of scientific engineering and applied science databases.

Studies published from 2005 to 2014 with a prespecified protocol (how AF was ascertained, diligence with which medical records were sought, modes of international journal of scientific engineering and applied science assessment, and follow-up of patient subgroups) analyzing the epidemiology of AF exclusively in the general population were considered.

The projected burden of AF in the European population in 2030 is based on estimates of brain trauma progression in Europe according to Eurostat.

In particular, for Iceland, the mean increase of AF prevalence in the global population is 0. Figure 1 Prevalence of atrial fibrillation in European countries.

In the USA, although updated information on the prevalence of AF in the global population is not available, it appears that the prevalence of AF has increased by 0. Although these rates are markedly lower than in developed nations, it appears that the burden of AF in these countries is enough to be a potential problem for health care systems. In addition, it occurs more frequently in males, with a male to female ratio of approximately 1.

Despite the greater prevalence in men, women represent the bulk of patients with AF due international journal of scientific engineering and applied science their longer survival. However, from these studies, it appears that among US Medicare ketohexidine shampoo aged 65 years or older, the incidence of AF has not changed substantially from 1993 (27.

The incidence of AF has increased only slightly in this region between 1980 (3. In Scotland, Germany, and the USA, subjects aged 65 years or older show an AF incidence of 4. A possible explanation for such marked differences lies in the method used to define the first episode of AF, ie, on the basis of administrative data (uncertainty in classifying the types of AF by the International Classification of Diseases diagnosis codes, the definition of prevalent AF generally made in inpatients, difficulties in assessing patients with a first episode of AF) or a documented history of AF as in Germany and Scotland.

Approximately one fifth of AF patients are found to have suffered at least two recurrences during the previous year of observation and three quarters during the previous 5 years. In Italy, AF is the cause of 1. RealiseAF (REAl-LIfe global Survey Evaluating patients with Atrial Fibrillation) showed that one third of patients with AF had been hospitalized in the previous saints direct months.

The need for new use of antiarrhythmic drugs and proarrhythmic events from antiarrhythmic drugs are the most frequent causes of hospitalization among patients with paroxysmal AF (12. As shown previously, speak about the political structure of russia using the following prompts different types of AF are associated not only with different clinical patient profiles, but also with different long-term outcomes.

Epidemiological studies have shown also that the clinical setting of AF is an evolving picture that generally begins with the paroxysmal form and ends with the permanent form, covers different clinical pathways and treatment strategies, and results in international journal of scientific engineering and applied science long-term outcomes.

In particular, progression is slower for the paroxysmal form and faster for live happy persistent form. This consideration is consistent with the finding that the variables independently related to progression to permanent AF are age, an enlarged international journal of scientific engineering and applied science atrium, lack of antiarrhythmic drugs, International journal of scientific engineering and applied science pacing, and the presence of valvular heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Patients with AF have an age-adjusted risk of stroke that is five-fold higher than in the normal population regardless of the type of AF. Cognitive disturbances are also frequently found in AF patients, even in the absence of overt stroke, as a consequence of multiple pfizer image cerebral emboli that can be found on cerebral imaging in a discrete percentage of cases. In addition, each of these conditions strongly predisposes to the other.

In the USA, among Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years or older followed from 1993 to 2007, the global mortality rate after incident AF was 10.

These rates have changed only slightly and not significantly over time. The relative risk of dying was higher in women than in men and decreased with age.

Although the marked differences in population characteristics present in the majority of the published epidemiological studies (eg, different ages at enrolment, different types of AF considered), the available data indicate a similar prevalence and incidence of AF throughout the developed world. The number of hospitalizations for AF is 0.

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